Malocclusion can be classified into different forms and division. And the type/s of treatment required for each individual must be planned specifically based on the diagnosis and expectation of the patient. For simplicity sake, we include the following illustration for easy understanding.


Crowding is a common dental problem in our local population. It is a result of insufficient space in the dental arches to accommodate all the teeth. Orthodontic treatment may involve extraction of teeth or dental arch expansion to provide space for alignment of teeth

Protrusive/proclined upper incisors

The appearance of protrusive incisors can be caused by dental problems (upper incisors stick out) alone or jaw base problem (protrusive upper jaw and retrusive lower jaw) OR a combination of the above problems. Treatment required depends on the diagnosis of the underlying problem and the developmental status of the patients.

Deep Bite

In this illustration of severe deep bite, the lower incisors are not visible when patient bites his teeth together. This is also an example of traumatic bite when the gums of upper and lower incisors are constantly being traumatised during function. It is advisable to start treatment as early as possible before irreversible injury occurs to the gums.

Anterior Open Bite

Anterior open bite can be purely a dental problem commonly caused by oral habits such as thumb or lip sucking. OR, it can due to jaw growth problem as in this case where there is a mismatch of the upper and lower jaws. Treatment modality chosen is dependent on the diagnosis and severity of the open bite.

Reverse Bite

Reverse bite is commonly seen in patients with retrusive upper jaw or protrusive lower jaw and more often than not, a combination of both. Treatment may involve just braces treatment in cases of mild to moderate severity. However, when the discrepancy between the upper and lower jaw relationship is severe, combined orthodontic and jaw surgery treatment is required for full correction and excellent facial aesthetics outcome.


Large spaces are present between the front teeth of this patient. This can be a result of abnormally small teeth, missing permanent teeth (congenital or extracted) or in this case a consequence of severe uncontrolled gum disease.